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Broccoli Cultivation Technology (Reference material)

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Broccoli Cultivation Technology

(Reference Material)


1.The Selection of Recommended Cultivars

Yafei broccoli cultivars can be catagorized into extra early maturing, early maturing, medium maturing, late-maturing, etremely late maturing. In plain areas of Hubei, Yafei broccoli cultivars can be planted (in nursery) according to following recommended time:


Cultivars Name

Maturity Type

Sowingnurserytime

Estimated time to market

绿莹莹

Extra Early

20 July-5 August

Early October/After the National Day

艳丽55

Early

20 July-5 August

Mid October-End of October

火峰

Early

20 July-5 August

Mid October-End of October

女神

Medium

20 July-15 August

Mid October-November

绿峰

Medium

25 July-15 August

Early November-December

胖胖

Moderately Late

5 August-20 August

December-Next year’s January

女王

Moderately Late

15 August-25 August

End of November-Next year’s January

迷你70

Medium

10 August-20 August

Late November-Early/Mid December

绿翡翠

Moderately Late

10 August-20 August

Late November-Next year’s Early January

绿宝石80

Moderately Late

10 August-20 August

December-Next year’s January

迷你90、晚熟翡翠、

Late

15 August-25 August

Mid December-Early Februry

绿宝石90、壮壮

二月天、晚熟六号

Late

25 August-7 September

End of Februry-Early March

三月鲜

Extremely Late

25 August-7 September

Mid March-End of March


2.Planting Nursery

a.Climate

Broccoli is cold loving vegetable. It is low temperature requiring crop, so it grows best around 20°C. Favourable Temperature for seed germination is 15-25°C. Broccoli reqiures a low temperature of 8°-15/18°C of vernalization to bolt, flower and seed set.

b.Soil Requirements

Broccoli requires deep sandy loam or clay loam soil, which is rich in organic matters and have good drainage. It is best to rotate broccoli with other crops that are not crucifers. Better to select the land where one have not sown any kind of cruciferous crop during past three years , or preferably add three parts sand and seven parts clay, with both soil types containing two kg water soluble or chemical NPK for one meter square. Seedbed width should be kept 1.5m including furrows. Seedbed should be 30 cm for conducive drainage.

c.Seed Sowing

     The usual planting rate is 300-375gms of seeds per hectare (120-150 gms per acre.). Sow the seed in the nursery or on the seedling bed at 0.5-1 cm depth. Firstly mix the right amount of seeds in nutritional soil, and then evenly broadcast over soil. After sowing cover the seeds with 0.2-0.5 cm thin layer of sandy soil (it helps to conserve moisture). Spray Metolachlor herbicide to control weed problem. Thin the seedlings to 3 cm apart 2-3 days after germination.

Continuous rain and high temperature can increase disease problem and obstruct head development. So, there are recommended heat tolerant Yafei broccoli cultivar/hybrids that can grow well in fairly warm season. Also in order to avoid hot and rainy summer weather, cover seedlings with sunshading net.

d.Transplanting and Spacing

Transplant the seedlings at 4-5 true leaves stage about 25 to 30 days after seeding. After 30 days of sowing, seedling will be 15 cm tall. Its perfect time to transplant seedlings. Space them 40-45 cm apart in the double rows of 60-70 cm apart on each high bed of 90-100 cm wide. The seedling must be sufficiently watered several hours before transplanting to make easier to remove the plant from the seedling bed. Thus, the roots of seedling may hold as much soil as possible, so as to prevent wilting during transplanting.

Irrigation must apply immediately after the transplanting. Recommended plant density is 34500 plants per hectare (14000 plants per acre)

e. Weekly Irrigation in Dry Season and Proper Drainage during Rainy Season

Broccoli is shallow rooted crop. Therefore, irrigation should be applied frequently (usually one week once irrigation) to prevent the plant from injures, root-rot and other diseases. Drainage must be carried out in the rainy season. It is necessary to remove side shoots as soon as possible to improve the yield and quality of main head.

f. Fertilizer Requirments

Broccoli is fertilizer loving crop. Its nurtritional value is high. Broccoli thrives best on soil of good fertility. Therefore Manure and chemical fertilizers are recommended.

For land preparation, apply 450 kg/Acre Potassium Sulphate (NPK 15:15:15) alongwith Zin fertilizer (6kg/Acre) and Borax (6kg/Acre).

After transplanting seeding, apply fertilizers as following:

lAt 15-20 days after transplant, apply Urea @ 60-80 kg/Acre

lAt 12-15 leaves stage again apply Urea @ 80-120 kg/Acre

lAt 20-21 leaves stage apply Urea @ 40 kg/Acre + Calcium Magnesium Phosphate @ 180 kg/Acre + Potash Fetilizer @ 180-300 kg/Acre

lAt head formation stage apply Compound Fertlizer @ 150-180 kg/Acre along with suitable amount of Ma, Ca, Mo and B micronutrients

lApply 0.6 % Borax fumigation 2-3 times

g.Disease and Insect Pest Managment

1)Insects

Among insects, Caterpillar, Moth, Striped flea beetle, and Cutworms are most common. Use of DuPont Pu Zun (Chlorantraniliprole) or Acetamiprid will be effective.

2)Diseases

Downy mildew: Oxadixyl Mancozeb, Metalaxyl, DuPont LuKe, Difenoconazol etc. In case of greenhouse/sheds, usage of Oxadixyl Mancozeb and Chlorothalonil fumigants are recommended.

Blight Disease: Recommended fungicides are: Oxadixyl Mancozeb, Metalaxyl, Difenoconazol etc.

Black rot: Firstly remove the unhealthy, infected/diseased seeds, then soak seeds for two hours using one million units of Streptomycin sulfate added in 500-folds solution. When the disease symptoms appear then apply Streptomycin, Kasumin+Bordeaux (Kasugamycin) fungicides for proper disease prevention.

Sclerotinia rot: Recommended fungicides are: Iprodione, Ronilan of BASF AG (Germany), Dimetachlone etc.

h.Harvesting

Broccoli matures in 65-75 days in summer, while it takes 90-120 days in winter. The quality of broccoli heads are usually harvested when they reach full size and firm; never wait until the clustered buds begin to open. When cutting, include 25 cm of the edible portion of the stem. It is best to harvest the heads in the early morning. Packing should be started as soon as possible after cutting.

                   Wuhan Yafei Seed Co., Ltd.